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Etruscan Deities

Gods & Goddesses

  • Achlae. Greek river god, Achelous.
  • Achle (Achile). from the Greek Achilles, hero of the Trojan War.
  • Achmemrun. from the Greek Agamemnon, king of Mycenaean Greece.
  • Achrum (Acharum) from Acheron, the Greek river of the underworld.
  • Achvizr (Achuvesr, Achuvizr, or Achviztr). unknown figure associated with Turan.
  • Aita (Eita). Ruler of the dead & personification of the underworld. Wolf's head from Greek Hades.
  • Aivas (Eivas, Evas). Aivas tlamunus, aivas vilates - Terror, Hades, the Greek god of the underworld and ruler of the dead.
  • Aivas Tlamunus (Aivas Vilates). Also Eivas or Evas. Etruscan equivalents of the Greek heroes Ajax, son of Telamon and Ajax, son of Oileus.
  • Alchumena. The Greek legendary figure, Alcmena.
  • Alcstei (Alcsti). The Greek legendary figure, Alcestis.
  • Alichsantre (Alechsantre, Alcsentre, Elchsntre, Elachśantre, Elachśntre, or Elcste) The Trojan legendary figure Alexandrus, otherwise known as Paris.
  • Alpan (Alpanu, Alpnu). Goddess whose name is identical to Etruscan “willingly”.
  • Althaia. The Greek figure Althaea, mother of Meleager.
  • Ani. Divinity named on the periphery of the Piacenza Liver. It seems to correspond to Martianus Capella’s Templum I, north, ruled by Janus, for which Ani appears to be the Etruscan word Aminth: Etruscan winged deity in the form of a child, probably identified with Amor, Amuce, Amuche, Amuke: The Greek legendary figure Amycus of the Argonauts myth Apulu, Aplu: The Greek god, Apollo.
  • Areatha. The Greek mythological figure, Ariadne.
  • Aril. Etruscan deity identified with Atlas.
  • Aritimi (Artumes). The Greek goddess Artemis.
  • Ataiun. The Greek mythological figure, Actaeon, Athrpa. The Greek deity, Atropos.
  • Atlenta (Atlnta). The Greek mythological person, Atalanta.
  • Atmite. The Greek legendary figure, Admetus.
  • Atunis: The Greek mythological figure, Adonis.
  • Aturmica. The Greek mythological figure, Andromache, the Amazon.
  • Aulunthe. Etruscan, the name of a satyr.
  • Calaina. The Greek Nereid, Galena.
  • Calanice. A Greek name of Hercle, Kallinikos.
  • Calu. God of wolves, represented by a wolf.
  • Capne, Kapne: The Greek legendary hero, Capaneus.
  • Caśntra. Greek prophetess, Cassandra, of the Trojan War.
  • Castur. Greek legendary figure, Castor.
  • Catha (Cavtha, Cath). An Etruscan deity, god and goddess, not well represented in the art. She appears in the expression ati cath, “Mother Cath” and also maru Cathsc, “the maru of Cath”; however, the nature of the maru is not known. She is also called śech, “daughter,” which seems to fit Martianus Capella’s identification of the ruler of Region VI of the sky as Celeritas solis filia, “Celerity the daughter of the sun.” In the Piacenza Liver the corresponding region is ruled by Cath.
  • Catmite. The Greek mythological figure, Ganymede, from an alternative Greek spelling, Gadymedes. From the Etruscan is Latin Catamitus.
  • Cel. Etruscan goddess, probably identified with Ge, as she had a giant for a son. Her name occurs in the expression ati Cel, “Mother Cel”.
  • Celsclan. Etruscan Gigas, “son of Cel”, identifying her as “Earth”, as the giants in Greek mythology were the offspring of the earth.
  • Cerca. Greek enchantress of the Odyssey, Circe.
  • Chaluchasu. Translation of Greek panchalkos, “wholly of bronze”, perhaps the robot of Crete, Talos.
  • Charun (Charu, or Karun) A male demon. Acted as one of the psychopompoi "guide of souls" of the underworld. His attribute is a hammer which he carries on his shoulder, or on which he supports himself. He has a nose like a vulture's, pointed animal ears and, often, snakes growing on his head instead of hair. Frequently he is shown with wings. He escorts the dead, and watches over the portals of graves. His name is connected with that of the Greek "Charon".
  • Chelphun. An Etruscan satyr.
  • Cilens. see: Celens
  • Cluthumustha (Clutmsta). The Greek female legendary figure, Clytemnestra.
  • Crapsti. Umbrian local deity, Grabouie.
  • Crisitha. The heroine of the Trojan War, the Greek name Chryseis.
  • Culsans. God of doors and doorways, corresponding to the two-faced Roman god Janus.
  • Culsu (Cul). A female underworld demon who was associated with gateways. Her attributes included a torch and scissors. She was often represented next to Culsans.
  • Easun (Heasun or Heiasun). Etruscan version of the Greek legendary hero Jason.
  • Ecapa. The Greek tragic heroine of the Trojan War, Hecuba.
  • Ectur. Hero of the Trojan War, Hector.
  • Elinei (Elinai or Elina). The Greek figure Helen of Trojan War fame.
  • Enie. Greek Enyo, one of the Graeae.
  • Epiur (Epeur). Greek epiouros, “guardian”, a boy presented to Tinia by Hercle, possibly Tages.
  • Ermania. Greek legendary figure Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen.
  • Eris. Greek divinity Eris.
  • Erus. Greek divinity Eros.
  • Esplace. Greek legendary healer, Asklepios.
  • Ethausva (Eth). Etruscan goddess, attendant at the birth of Menrva.
  • Etule. Greek Aitolos, confused with his brother, Epeios, who built the Trojan horse.
  • Euturpa (Euterpe). The Greek divinity, Euterpe.
  • Evan. An attendant on Turan, sometimes male, sometimes female.
  • Evtucle. (Ev)thucle)) The Greek hero, Eteocles.
  • Feronia. An obscure rural goddess primarily known from the various Roman cults who worshipped her.
  • Februus. God of Purification. He was also the god of riches (money/gold) and death, both connected to the underworld in the same natural manner as with the better-known Roman god Pluto. Februus is possibly named in honor of the more
    ancient Februa, (also Februalia and Februatio), the spring festival of washing and purification.
  • Fufluns (or Puphluns) was a god of plant life, happiness, wine, health and growth in all things. He is the son of Semla. He was worshipped at Populonia (Etruscan “Fufluna” or “Pupluna”).
  • Hamphiare (Amphare). Legendary Greek seer, Amphiaraus.
  • Hathna. Etruscan satyr.
  • Hercle (Heracle or Hercl), the son of Tinia and Uni, was a version of the Greek Heracles, depicted as a muscular figure often carrying a club and wearing a lionskin.
  • Hipece. The magic Greek spring, Hippocrene, represented in Etruscan art as a water spout in the form of a lion’s head.
  • Horta. Goddess of agriculture (highly conjectural).
  • Ilithiia. The Greek goddess of childbirth, Eileithyia. Occurs also in the expression flereś atis ilithiial, “statue of mother Eileithyia”.
  • Iynx. An Etruscan mythological creature, a bird of love.
  • Laran. God of war. In art, he was portrayed as a naked youth wearing a helmet and carrying a spear. As with numerous gods of war, Laran is associated with fire and the sun. Laran's consort was Turan, goddess of love and fertility, who was equated with the Latin Venus. Laran was the Etruscan equivalent of the Greek Ares and the Roman Mars.
  • Lasa. One of a class of deities, plural Lasas, mainly female, but sometimes male, from which the Roman Lares came. Where the latter were the guardians of the dead, the Etruscan originals formed the court of Turan. Lasa often precedes an epithet referring to a particular deity: Lasa Sitmica, Lasa Achununa, Lasa Racuneta, Lasa Thimrae, Lasa Vecuvia Lasa Vecuvia: Goddess of prophecy, associated with the nymph Vegoia.
  • Latva. The Greek mythological person, Leda.
  • Leinth. Etruscan divinity, male and female, possibly related to lein, Etruscan word for “to die”, but does not appear in any death scenes.
  • Letham (Lethns, Letha, Lethms or Leta) An Etruscan infernal goddess.
  • Letun. The Greek goddess, Leto.
  • Lunc (Lnche). The Greek legendary figure, Lynceus.
  • Malavisch. Etruscan divinity of the mirrors, probably from malena, “mirror”.
  • Man, Mani: Etruscan class of spirits representing “the dead” and yet not the same as a hinthial, “ghost.” From the Mani came the Latin Manes, which are both “the good” and the deified spirits of the dead.
  • Mania. Etruscan infernal deity, one of a dyad including Mantus. She went on into Latin literature, ruling beside Mantus and was reported to be the mother of the Lares and Manes. Under the Etruscan kings, she received the sacrifices
    of slain children during the Laralia festival of May 1. She continued to survive in post-classical Tuscan folklore as Mania della Notte, a nocturnal spirit bringing nightmares.
  • Mantus. God of the underworld in the Po Valley. The consort of Mantus was Mania. The names of this divine couple indicate that they were connected to the Manes, chthonic divinities or spirits of the dead in ancient Roman belief and called man(im) by the Etruscans. Etruscan city of Manthua, later Mantua, after the deity.
  • Maris (or Maris) Depicted as an infant or child and given many epithets, including Maris Halna, Maris Husrnana ("Maris the Child") and Maris Isminthians. He was the son of Hercle. On two bronze mirrors, Maris appears in scenes depicting an immersion rite to ensure his immortality, possibly connected to stories about the centaur Mares, the ancestor of the Ausones, who underwent a triple death and resurrection.
  • Mean (Meanp). Etruscan deity, equivalent of Nike or Victoria.
  • Meleacr. The Greek legendary figure, Meleager.
  • Memnum (Memrum or Memnon). a Trojan saved from Achle by his mother, Thesan.
  • Menerva (Menrva). The Etruscan original to the Roman Minerva, made into Greek Athena.
  • Menle. The Greek hero, Menelaus, of Trojan War fame.
  • Metaia (Metua, Metvia). The Greek mythological figure, Medea.
  • Metus. The Gorgon, Medusa, of Greek mythology. The head appears on the Aegis of Menrva as a Gorgoneion.
  • Mlacuch. A young Etruscan woman kidnapped by Hercle.
  • Nestur. The Greek legendary hero, Nestor.
  • Nethuns. God of wells, later expanded to all water, including the sea. The name "Nethuns" is likely cognate with that of the Celtic god Nechtan and the Persian and Vedic gods sharing the name Apam Napat, perhaps all based on the Proto-
    Indo-European word *népots "nephew, grandson. Nortia. Goddess of fate and chance. Unattested in Etruscan texts but mentioned by Roman historian Livy. Her attribute was a nail, which was driven into a wall in her temple during the Etruscan new year festival as a fertility rite.
  • Pacha. Greek Bacchus, an epithet of Fufluns.
  • Palmithe (Talmithe). The Greek hero, Palamedes.
  • Pantasila (Pentasila). The Greek name, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons.
  • Patrucle. The Greek hero, Patroclus, of Trojan War fame.
  • Pava Tarchies. Etruscan Tarchies in an expression: “boy Tarchies.” See under Tarchies.
  • Pecse (Pakste). The name of the Greek legendary winged horse, Pegasus, assigned by the Etruscans to the Trojan Horse.
  • Pele. The Greek hero, Peleus.
  • Pemphetru. Greek Pemphredo, one of the Graeae.
  • Perse (Pherse). The Greek legendary figure, Perseus.
  • Phaun (Faun or Phamu). The Greek mythological figure, Phaon.
  • Phersipnai (Phersipnei or Proserpnai). Queen of the underworld, equivalent to the Greek Persephone and Roman Proserpina.
  • Phersu. A divinity of the mask, probably from Greek prosopon, “face”. The god becomes adjectival, *phersuna, from which Latin persona.
  • Phuinis. The Greek Phoinix, friend of Peleus.
  • Phulsphna. The Greek legendary figure, Polyxena.
  • Prisis. The Greek Briseis mentioned in the Iliad.
  • Priumne. Priam king of Troy.
  • Prumathe. The Greek mythological figure Prometheus.
  • Puanea. Etruscan name of a satyr.
  • Pultuce (Pulutuce, Pulutuke or Pultuke). The Greek mythological figure, Pollux.
  • Rath. Etruscan deity identified with Apollo. Tarquinia was his sanctuary.
  • Rathmtr. The Greek mythological figure, Rhadamanthys.
  • Satre (or Satres) He occupies the dark and negative northwest region, and seems to be a "frightening and dangerous god who hurls his lightning from his abode deep in the earth." Satre is usually identified with the Roman god Saturn.
  • Sime. An Etruscan satyr who has a Greek name.
  • Selvans. God of the woodlands, cognate with Roman Silvanus.
  • Semla. Equivalent for the Greek goddess Semele.
  • Sethlans. God of fire, the forge, metalworking, and by extension craftsmanship in general. Sethlans may be identified by his tools, the hammer and tongs of the blacksmith, and by the pileus or conical cap he wears. To Greek Hephaestus,
    Egyptian Ptah and the Roman Vulcan.
  • Tages. Tages was a founding prophet of Etruscan religion. He revealed a cosmic view of divinity and correct methods of ascertaining divine will concerning events of public interest. The sacred texts recording the revelations of Tages (and a few other prophets, mainly a female figure known as Vegoia were called by the Romans the Etrusca Disciplina at least as early as the late republic.
  • Sispe (Sisphe). The legendary Greek king, Sisyphus.
  • Svutaf. A winged Etruscan deity whose name, if from the same Latin root as the second segment of persuade, might mean “yearning” and therefore be identifiable with Eros.
  • Taitle. The Etruscan form of the Greek mythological figure Daedalus.
  • Tarchies. Occurs in Pava Tarchies, label of a central figure in depictions of divination, who, along with Epiur, a divinatory child, is believed to be the same as Tages, founder of the Etruscan religion, mentioned by Roman authors.
  • Tarchon. An Etruscan foundation hero who, with his brother, Tyrrhenus, founded the Etruscan Federation of twelve cities.
  • Tecum. God of the lucomenes, or ruling class.
  • Techrs. From the Greek, the Trojan War hero, Teucer.
  • Telmun (Tlamun, Talmun or Tlamu). A Greek legendary figure, the Argonaut, Telamon.
  • Teriasals (Teriasa). Legendary Greek blind prophet, Tiresias.
  • Thalna (Thalana or Talna). Etruscan divine figure of multiple roles shown male, female and androgynous: it attends the births of Menrva and Fufluns, dances as a Maenad and expounds prophecy. The name comes from Greek thallein, “to bloom”. A number of divinities fit the etymology: Greek Thallo and Hebe and Roman Iuventas, “youth”.
  • Thanr. An Etruscan deity shown present at the births of deities.
  • Thesan. Etruscan goddess of the dawn. She was identified with the Roman Aurora and Greek Eos.
  • These. A hero who is the equivalent of the Greek Theseus.
  • Thethis. Greek nymph Thetis, mother of Achilles.
  • Thetlvmth. Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver.
  • Thufltha. Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver.
  • Tinia (also Tin, Tinh, Tins or Tina) was the god of the sky and the highest god. Equivalent to the Roman Jupiter and the Greek Zeus. He was the husband of Thalna or Uni and the father of Hercle. The Etruscans believed in Nine Great
    Gods, who had the power of hurling thunderbolts; they were called Novensiles by the Romans. Tinia was also part of the powerful "trinity" that included Menrva and Uni and had temples in every city of Etruria. Tinia was sometimes represented as seated and with a beard or sometimes standing and beardless. In terms of symbolism, Tinia has the thunderbolt and the rod of power, and is generally accompanied by the eagle and sometimes has a wreath of ivy round his
  • Tiur. Etruscan deity identified with Greek Selene and Roman Luna (goddess).
  • Tlusc (Tluscv, Mar Tlusc). Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver. The corresponding region in Martianus Capella is ruled by Sancus, an Italic god and Sabine progenitor, who had a temple on the Quirinal Hill, and appears on an Etruscan boundary stone in the expression Selvans Sanchuneta, in which Sanchuneta seems to refer to the oaths establishing the boundary. Sancus probably comes from Latin sancire, “to ratify an oath”.
  • Truia (Truials). Troy, Trojan, the city of the Iliad.
  • Tuchulcha. An Etruscan demon.
  • Tuntle. The Greek legendary figure, Tyndareus.
  • Turan. Etruscan goddess identified with Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus. She appears in the expression, Turan ati, “Mother Turan”, equivalent to Venus Genetrix. Her name is a noun meaning “the act of giving” in Etruscan, based on the verb stem tur- ‘to give’.
  • Turms. The messenger god between people and gods. Turms was the equivalent of Roman Mercury and Greek Hermes.
  • Turnu. An Etruscan deity, a type of Eros, child of Turan.
  • Tusna. Perhaps from *Turansna, “of Turan.” The swan of Turan.
  • Tute. The Greek hero, Tydeus.
  • T-v[?]th. Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver.
  • Tyrrhenus. An Etruscan culture hero and twin brother of Tarchon.
  • Uni. Supreme goddess of the Etruscan pantheon, wife of Tinia, mother of Hercle, and patroness of . With Tinia and Menrva, she was a member of the ruling triad of Etruscan deities. Uni was the equivalent of the Roman Juno, whose name Uni may be derived from, and the Greek Hera.
  • Urphe. The Greek mythological figure, Orpheus.
  • Urusthe. The Greek legendary figure, Orestes.
  • Usil. Etruscan deity identified with Greek Helios, Roman Sol.
  • Vanth. Etruscan winged demon of the underworld often depicted in the company of Charun. She could be present at the moment of death, and frequently acted as a guide of the deceased to the underworld.
  • Vea. Etruscan divinity, possibly taking its name from the city of Veii or vice versa.
  • Vecu (Vecui or Vecuvia). The prophetic nymph, Vegoia. See: Lasa Vecuvia.
  • Vegoia (or Vecu, Vecui. or Vecuvia) is a nymph and/or sibyl within the Etruscan religious framework who is responsible for writing some parts of their large and complex set of sacred books, of initiating the Etruscan people to the arts, originating the rules and rituals of land marking, and presiding over the observance, respect and preservation of boundaries.
  • Veltha (Velthume, Vethune or Veltune). Etruscan deity, possible state god of the Etruscan league of Etruria, the Voltumna in the Latin expression Fanum Voltumnae, “shrine of Voltumna”, which was their meeting place, believed located at Orvieto. The identification is based on reconstruction of a root *velthumna from Latin Voltumna, Vertumnus and Voltumnus of literary sources, probably from Etruscan veltha, “earth” or “field.” Representations of a bearded male with a long spear suggest Velthune may be an epithet of Tinia.
  • Veiove (Veive or Vetis). Etruscan infernal deity whose temple stood at Rome near the Capitoline Hill. The identification is made from the deity’s Latin names related by a number of ancient authors over the centuries: Vēi, Vēdi, Vēdii, Veiovis, Vediovis, Vediiovis, Vedius.
  • Vejovis (or Vejove) Vejovis may have been based on the Etruscan god of Vendetta, known to them by the name Vetis written on the Piacenza Liver. Vejovis was portrayed as a young man, holding a bunch of arrows, pilum, (or lightning
    bolts) in his hand, and accompanied by a goat. Romans believed that Vejovis was one of the first gods to be born.
  • Velparun. The Greek hero, Elpenor.
  • Vesuna. Italic goddess mentioned in the Iguvine Tables.
  • Vikare. Son of Taitle, derived from the Greek mythological figure Icarus. The name is found inscribed once, on a golden bulla dating to the 5th century BC now housed at the Walters Art Museum.
  • Vile (Vilae). Greek Iolaos, nephew of Hercle.
  • Voltumna (or Veltha) was the chthonic (earth) deity, who became the supreme god of the Etruscan pantheon, the deus Etruriae princeps, according to Varro. Voltumna's cult was centered in Volsini (modern-day Orvieto) a polis of the
    Etruscan Civilization of northwest Italy.
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