First Dynasty (or Dynasty I) - 3100 – 2890 BC (Old Kingdom)
- Narmer ("Narmer Palette", "nimrood", Pharaoh, 31st BC) Some consider him the unifier of Egypt. He is also identified with the First Dynasty pharaoh Menes. He built Memphis.
- Hor-Aha (Pharaoh, 31st BC,) "Horus the Fighter" Ruled between age 30 to 60.
- Djer (Phoraoh, 31st BC) , 40 year Reign.
- Djet (Wadj, Zet or Uadji, Pharaoh, "Serpent of Horus") How long Djet ruled is unknown.
- Merneith (Meritnit, Meryet-Nit or Merty-Neith 30th BC) Merneith is believed to be ruler upon the death of, Djet for an undetermined period.
- Den (Hor-Den, Dewen or Udimu) King of Lower and Upper Egypt. Unable to provide information about the duration of Den's reign.
- Anedjib (Adjib, Hor-Anedjib, Hor-Adjib, and Enezib) an implausible reign of 74 years. Generally credit a reign of 8–10 years.
- Semerkhet (Companion of the Divine Community) implausibly long reign of 72 years. Credit Semerkhet with a reign of 8½ years.
- Qa'a (Qaa or Ka'a 30th BC) Reigned for 33 years
Second Dynasty (or Dynasty II) 2890 – 2686 BC (Old Kingdom)
- Hotepsekhemwy (The Two Powers are Reconciled or Pleasing in Powers) credit Hotepsekhemwy with either a 25 or a 29 year rule.
- Reneb (Nebra, maybe identifiable with Weneg) Length of his reign is unknown. Credit with either a 10 or 14 year rule.
- Nynetjer (Ninetjer or Banetjer 2850 to 2760 BC) Exact length of reign is unknown. Credit reign of either 43 years or 45 years.
- Senedj (Sened, or Sethenes 2773 - 2753 BC) Eearliest mention of his name in the 4th dynasty. Exact duration of Senedj's reign is unknown.
- Seth-Peribsen (Ash-Peribsen, king of Lower and Upper Egypt, God of Darkness and Chaos only during the much later Late Period) around 2740 BC. His reign is Unknown.
- Sekhemib-Perenmaat (Sekhemib) The exact length of his reign is unknown. Egyptian state was divided during his reign.
- Khasekhemwy (Khasekhemui, The Two Powerful Ones Appear) A reign of 17.5 or nearly 18 full years. some Egyptologists believe that another Pharaoh, Khasekhem, ruled between Sekhemib and Khasekhemwy.
Third Dynasty (or Dynasty III) 2686 to 2613 BC (Old Kingdom)
- Netjerikhet (Djoser, Zoser, the Divine of Body) Raigned for about 19 years and may have ruled up to 37 or 38 years. Djoser may have been the king's birth name and appears only in later records.
- Sekhemkhet (Sechemchet or Tyreis, 2648 to 2640 BC)
- Sanakht (or Hor-Sanakht 2650 BC) Length of raign is unknown.
- Khaba (or Hor-Khaba 2630 BC) Brief reign of Six years.
- Qahedjet (or Hor-Qahedjet) A reign of Eight years.
-- Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the age of the pyramids. The capital at that time was Memphis.
Fourth Dynasty (or Dynasty IV) 2613 to 2494 BC (Golden Age of the Old Kingdom)
- Sneferu (Snefru, Snofru or Soris, 2613 to 2589 BC) A reign of 24 years.
- Khufu (Khnum-Khufu, Kheops, Cheops, or Suphis, 2589-2566 BC) He is generally accepted as having built the Great Pyramid of Giza. It is still unclear how long Khufu ruled over Egypt. he is Enoch...
- Djedefre (Djedefra, Radjedef, or Ratoises, 2566-2558 BC?) "Son of Ra"
- Khafra (Khafre, Khefren or Chephren, Cruel and Heretic Ruler, 2558-2532 BC) Credited with a raign of 66 years. The builder of the second largest pyramid of Giza.
- Bikheris (Ba-Ka, 2532 BC) Egyptologists believe Bikheris to be fictitious or the product of a historical misunderstanding. Length of raign is unknown. Credits him with a length of 22 years.
- Menkaure (Menkaura, Mykerinos, or Menkheres, 2532–2503 BC) Length of raign is unknown. 18 year rulership was meant to be written.
- Shepseskaf (Schepseskaf, 2510 BC) Reigned 6 to 8 years. The completion of the temple complex of the Pyramid of Menkaure 29°58′21″N 31°07′42″E
- Djedefhor (Hordjedef, Djedefptah, Ptahdjedef 2499–2494 BC?) Raigned between two to nine years.
Fifth Dynasty - (or Dynasty V) 2494 to 2345 BC (Old Kingdom)
- Userkaf (2494-2487 BC) Constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara. 29°52'25?N 31°13'08?E .. Userkaf did not reign longer than 12 to 14 years.
- Sahure (2487–2475 BC) A reign of at least 12 years. Established an ancient Egyptian Navy. Begun the cemetery complex at Saqqara.
- Neferirkare Kakai (Beautiful is the Soul of Ra, Kind and Gentle Ruler, 2475–2455 BC) His raign was under 20 years.
- Shepseskare Isi (Shepseskare, 2455-2448 BC) It's strongly argued that Shepseskare's reign lasted only a few months. Probably raigned after Neferefre?
- Neferefre (Raneferef, 2448-2445 BC)
- Nyuserre Ini (Neuserre Izi, Niuserre Isi or Nyuserra, 2445 - 2421 BC) He reigned for 24 or 25 years.
- Menkauhor Kaiu (Menkaouhor, 2421-2414 BC) He reigned for 8 years.
- Djedkare Isesi (2414–2375 BC) Archaeological evidence suggests that his reign is likely to have exceeded thirty-two years.
- Unas (Oenas, Unis or Wenis, 2375 – 2345 BC)
Sixth Dynasty - (Dynasty VI) 2345 to 2181 BC (Old Kingdom)
- Teti (Othoes, 2345-2333 BC) Exact length of his reign has been destroyed. Believed to have been about 12 years.
- Userkare (2333-2331 BC) Conspiracy and Seized the Throne from Teti.
- Pepi I Meryre (2332-2283 BC) Won back his rightful Throne from Userkare. The reign was marked by aggressive expansion into Nubia. 19.0000° N, 32.0000° E , Lebanon, and the Somalian coast 10°00'N 49°00'E
- Merenre Nemtyemsaf I (2283-2278 BC) Appointed Weni as the first Governor of all of Upper Egypt. Reign lasted slightly more than a decade.
- Pepi II Neferkare (2278-2184 BC) Decline of the Old Kingdom. As the power of the nomarchs grew, the power of the Pharaoh declined. 94 Year Rule..
- Merenre Nemtyemsaf II (2184 BC) Reigned for only a year.
- Neitiqerty Siptah (2184-2181 BC) His reign is usually replaced with that of Nitocris, the first female Pharaoh who seems not to have actually existed...
-- Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the age of the pyramids. The capital at that time was Memphis.
Seventh Dynasty - (Dynasty VII) 2181 to 2160 BC (1st Intermediate Period, Thebes only)
- Netjerkare (His existence is only attested on the Abydos King List) Possibily Nitocris never existed, and her name in hieroglyphics, Nitekreti, is a corrupted version of Netjerkare.
- Menkare (He is entirely unattested outside of the Abydos King List, The Ka of Re remains)
- Neferkare II (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List) He may have been the king Wadklare
- Neferkare Neby (son to Ankhesenpepi II and Pepi II)
- Djedkare Shemai (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List)
- Neferkare Khendu (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List)
- Merenhor (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List)
- Neferkamin (The Ka of Min is Beautiful)
- Nikare (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List)
- Neferkare Tereru (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List)
- Neferkahor (His name is only attested on the Abydos King List and on a Cylinder Seal)
Eighth Dynasty (Dynasty VIII) Continued from VII (1st Intermediate Period, Thebes only
- Neferkare Pepiseneb (may be either Nitocris or Netjerkare) It is because of this strange absence that some Egyptologists consider him the first king of the Eighth Dynasty.
- Neferkamin Anu (Reigned over the Memphite region) Reign of 2 years, 1 month and 1 day.
- Qakare Ibi (he probably did not hold power over all of Egypt) Ibi's pyramid is the last ever built in Saqqara. Reign lasting 4 years, 2 months and 1 day
- Neferkaure II (Reign of Four years and Two months)
- Neferkauhor (he left behind the "Koptos Decree stela" which names Shemay as his Vizier in Upper Egypt) Reign length of 2 years, 1 month and 1 day.
- Neferirkare (Reign length of one and-a-half years) He was possibly overthrown by the first king of the Ninth Dynasty, Meribre Khety I, of Herakleopolis, or by the onset of low Nile floods and mass famine and chaos.
Ninth Dynasty (Dynasty IX) 2160 to 2025 BC (1st Intermediate Period, Thebes only)
- Wakhare Khety I (Akhtoy, or Achthoes 2150 BC, Insane and Cruel Ruler who died eaten by a Crocodile)
- Merikare (Merykare or Merykara, 2075 BC) His pyramid at Saqqara has not yet been discovered.
- Neferkare III (2140 BC) Neferkare is not included on the Abydos King List or the Saqqara King List.
- Wankhare Khety II (While seen as a local ruler, as there was not real central authority during much of the First Intermediate Period. Serving under the Heracleopolitan Pharaoh Merykare)
Tenth Dynasty (Dynasty X) (1st Intermediate Period, Thebes only)
- Akhtoy Meryibtowe (Nothing)
- Akhtoy Wahkare (Nothing)
- Akhtoy Nebkaure (Nothing)
- Merykare (Merikare, or Merykara, 2075 BC) his dates are uncertain. His pyramid at Saqqara has not yet been discovered.
Eleventh Dynasty (Dynasty XI) 2134 to 1991 BC (Middle Kingdom)
- Mentuhotep I (Considered to be the Founding Father of the Eleventh Dynasty) May have been a local Egyptian nomarch.
- Intef I (Sehertawy, Pacifier of the two lands ?–2118 BC) Reigned from 4 to 16 years
- Intef II (Wahankh, 2118–2069 BC) Reigned for almost fifty years from 2112 to 2063 BC
- Intef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer, 2069–2061 BC) Short reign of 8 years
- Mentuhotep II (Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, 2046–1995 BC) Reigned for 51 years. First pharaoh to reunite Egypt in the Middle Kingdom.
- Mentuhotep III (Montuhotep III, Sankhkare, 2010-1998 BC) Reigned for 12 years.
- Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyre, 1998-1991 BC) Raigned for a 7 year period.
Twelfth Dynasty (Dynasty XII) 1991 to 1802 BC (Middle Kingdom)
- Amenemhat I (Amenemhet I, 1991-1962 BC) Moved the capital from Thebes to Itjtawy (Itjawy, el-Lisht 29°34'31.42"N 31°13'28.20"E).
- Senusret I (Sesostris I, or Senwosret I 1971-1926 BC) Continued his father's aggressive expansionist policies against Nubia
- Amenemhat II (1929-1895 BC) Not much is known about his reign. Raigned Egypt for 35 years. His pyramid was constructed at Dahshur and is only little researched.
- Senusret II (1897-1878 BC) Began work on an extensive Irrigation system. His pyramid was constructed at (El-Lahun 29°14'14.15"N 30°58'9.75"E)
- Senusret III (Senwosret III, or Sesostris III, 1878-1839 BC) His military campaigns gave rise to an era of peace and economic prosperity. Carried out at least four major campaigns into Nubia.
- Amenemhat III (Amenemhet III, 1860-1814 BC) His reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom. A canal was dug, known as Mer-Wer (the Great Canal)
- Amenemhat IV (Amenemhet IV 1815-1806 BC) Completed the latter's temple at Medinet Maadi. Reigned for 9 Years 3 months and 27 days.
- Sobekneferu (Neferusobek, First known female ruler of Egypt) She ruled for 3 years, 10 months, and 24 days.
Thirteenth Dynasty (Dynasty XIII) 1802 to 1649 BC (Middle Kingdom)
- Khutawyre Wegaf (or Ugaf) Appears in the Turin King List as first ruler of the 13th Dynasty.
- Sekhemkare (Amenemhat V Sekhemkare) Reigned for a minimum of 3 years.
- Hotepibre (Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef) For this king we have a statue dedicated to Ptah.
- Iufni (He ruled for a short period) He is only known from the Turin King List.
- Amenemhet VI (Seankkibre)
- Nebnuni (Semenkare) He is only known from one contemporary object: a Stela found at Gebel Zeit. He reigned most likely only for a very short time.
- Ameny Qemau (Sehotepibre) Pyramid of Ameny Qemau was built for him)
- Sewadjkare (This Ruler is only known from the Turin King List).
- Nedjemibre (Nothing)
- Sobekhotep I (Khaankhre, 1735 BC) He had a short Reign.
- Amenemhat (Renseneb Amenemhat) ?
- Hor (1760 BC) Had a reign of only seven months.
- Sedjefakare (Sedjefakare Kay Amenemhat VII) Without further evidence a reign of 6–7 years.
- Sobekhotep II (Sekhemre Khutawy) He Reigned at least three years.
- Khendjer (Userkare Khendjer, 1764-1759 or 1718-1712 BC) Reigned from Memphis during 4 years 3 months and 5 days.
- Imyremeshaw (Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw, 1759 BC or 1711 BC) He may have reigned for 5 years and certainly for less than 10 years.
- Sehetepkare Intef (Intef IV or Intef V, 1759 BC and 1749 BC or c. 1710 BC) Reigned from Memphis for a short period, certainly less than 10 years.
- Seth Meribre (1749 or 1700 BC) Reigned from Memphis, certainly less than 10 years. He is only attested for certain on the Turin canon.
- Sobekhotep III (Sekhemresewdjtawy, 1740 BC or 1700 BC) Reigned for 3 to 4 years. He was the "New King who knew not Joseph" in Exodus 1:8
- Neferhotep I (The most important monument of the king is a large, heavily eroded stela dating to year two of the king’s reign, found at Abydos) He was given a reign of eleven years.
- Sihathor Menwadjre (Nothing)
- Sobekhotep IV (Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV) Under his reign, a military campaign against Nubia occurred. He reigned for around 10 years.
- Sobekhotep V (Khahotepre) Reigned for 4 years, 8 months and 29 days.
- Sobekhotep VI (Khahotepre) Reigned for 4 years, 8 months and 29 days?
- Wahibre Ibiau (Wahibre, 1670 BC) Reigned for 10 years 8 months and 29 days
- Merneferre Ay (Aya, or Eje, 1700 BC) Reigned for 23 Years, 8 Months and 18 days.
- Seheqenre Sankhptahi (1663-1649 BC)
Upper Egypt Only...
- Merhotepre Ini (Nothing) Reigned for 2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days.
- Sankhenre Sewadjtu (1675 BC) Reigned for 3 years and 2 to 4 months. He is unknown from contemporary historical records.
- Mersekhemre Ined (1672-1669 BC or 1651-1648 BC) Reigned for 3 years, 1 to 4 months and 1 day. He likely ruled Middle and Upper Egypt while the Hyksos 14th or 15th dynasty probably already controlled large parts of the Delta region..
- Sewadjkare Hori (Hori II, 1669-1664 or 1648-1643 BC) He reigned over Middle and Upper Egypt for 5 years.
- Merkawre Sobekhotep (Sobekhotep VII, 1664-1663 BC) He raigned for 2 and a half years. t.
- Merkheperre (The one who Loves the Transofrmation of RE)
- Mentuhotep V (Sewedjara)
- Mershepsesre Ini II (Nothing)
- Mersekhemre Neferhotep II (Nothing)
- Sekhanenre (Nothing)
Fourteenth Dynasty (Dynasty XIV) 1802 to 1649 BC (Middle Kingdom)
It is associated with the Delta region of Egypt, and may have ruled from Xois, though for only little more than 100 years.
- Nehesy (Nehesi) His name means "Nubian" in Egyptian. After 1710 BC marks the slow disintegration "no single ruler was able to control the whole of Egypt" until "Ahmose I" captured this city (Tell el-Dab'a 30° 47’ N, 31° 50’ E)
- Sekheperenre ("The one whom Re has caused to come into being")
- Merdjefare (Kha[...]re [...]kare) Attested by a single stela from Saft al-Hinna, in the Delta.
- Sekhaenre Yakbim
- Ya'ammu (anywhere between 1783 to 1640 BC) Ya'ammu and Nubwoserre may have been two different people, or two names belonging to the same king.
- Qareh (The Bald One) His name was earlier misread as 'Qar'.
- Sheshi (Maaibre Sheshi) Ruler of Avaris "30.7874° N, 31.8214° E" in Lower Egypt. Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos.
- Aperanat (He bears the title of Heka-chasut) "Ruler of the Foreigners" from which the word Hyksos is derived.
- Samuqenu (Nothing)
- Meruserre Yaqub-Har (Yakubher, or Yak-Baal) Yaqub-Har himself always used a prenomen or royal name, Meruserre 'strong is the love of Re.'
Fifteenth Dynasty (Dynasty XV) 1650 to 1550 BC (2nd Intermediate Period)
- Salitis (1648 BC) First king of the Hyksos to rule Northern Egypt. The precise dates of his rule are unknown. Some scholars mention Salitis' name as "Sultan". Salitis captured Memphis and placed himself in higher rank than any of the royal families in the city.
- Sakir-Har (The name Sakir-Har translates as 'Reward of Har.') The obscure Hyksos king, Sakir-Har, was discovered in an excavated door jamb from Tell el-Dab'a of Ancient Egypt.
- Khyan (Khian, or Khayan) Diplomatic contacts with Crete and the Hittites. A sphinx with his name was bought on the art market at Bagdad and might demonstrate diplomatic contacts to Babylon.
- Apepi (Ipepi, or Apophis) He ruled over the northern portion of Egypt for forty years.
- Khamudi (Khamudy) It is generally believed that "Ahmose I" defeated the Hyksos king by his 18th or 19th year.
Sixteenth Dynasty (Dynasty XVI) 1650 to 1550 BC (2nd Intermediate Period)
- Djehuti (Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti, Djehuty or Thuty) He reigned for 3 years around 1650 BC. Sekhemre Sementawy, may correspond to names corresponding to Kings from the 13th, 15th, 16th and even 17th dynasties.
- Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemre Susertawi Sobekhotep VIII) He reigned over Upper Egypt during the time of the Hyksos conquest of Memphis and Lower Egypt. He enjoyed a reign of 16 years.
- Neferhotep III (Sekhemre Sankhtawy Neferhotep III) He is assigned a reign of 1 year. He reigned exclusively over the Theban region.
- Seankhenre Mentuhotepi (Mentuhotepi's short reign was probably marked by the constant conflict with the Hyksos kingdom of the 15th dynasty). He reigned over little more than Thebes itself.
- Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenre Nebiryraw or Nebiryerawet I) Hr reigned for 26 years. He purchased the office of Governorate of Elkab from Kebsi. No mining expeditions dispatched to the Eastern Desert region of Egypt during his reign.
- Nebiriau II (Nebiryerawet) He reigned for twelve years. He was an obscure king.
- Bebiankh (Seuserenre Bebiankh) He is assigned a reign of twelve years. His activities included the Gebel Zeit galena mines.
- Sekhemre Shedwast (Sekhemre Shedwast Sekhemreshedwaset) Sekhemre Shedwast may be identical to Sekhemre-shedtawi Sobekemsaf II.
Seventeenth Dynasty (Dynasty XVII) 1580 to 1550 BC (2nd Intermediate Period)
- Rahotep (Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep) Restorations in temples at Abydos and Koptos.
- Sobekemsaf I (Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I) Mining expedition to the rock quarries at Wadi Hammamat. Extensively restored and decorated the Temple of Monthu at Medamud.
- Sobekemsaf II (Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf) This king's royal pyramid tomb was violated and destroyed by tomb robbers.
- Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef (Antef, or Inyotef) He ruled from Thebes.
- Nubkheperre Intef (Antef, or Inyotef) He restored numerous damaged temples in Upper Egypt as well as constructing a new temple at Gebel Antef (Lexor).
- Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef (Antef, or Inyotef) Referred to as Intef VII or VIII in some literature. He was a short-lived successor of Nubkheperre Antef VII.
- Senakhtenre Ahmose (One of the Lords of the West alongside Seqenenre and Kamose). this ruler's birth name or nomen was in fact "Ahmose" (not Tao).
- Seqenenre Tao (Seqenera Djehuty-aa or Sekenenra Taa) Seqenenre Tao is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos.
- Kamose (Reign of approximately five years) His reign is important for the decisive military initiatives he took against the Hyksos, who had come to rule much of Ancient Egypt.
Eighteenth Dynasty (Dynasty XVIII) 1550 to 1292 BC (New Kingdom) - Golden Age
- Ahmose I (Amosis I, Amenes, or Aahmes, 1570–1546, 1560–1537 and 1551–1527) He completed the conquest of Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.
- Amenhotep I (Amenophis I) His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. Maintained dominance over Nubia and the Nile Delta but probably did not attempt to keep power in Syrio-Palestine.
- Thutmose I (Thothmes, Thutmosis, or Tuthmosis I) He campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt further than ever before. His reign is generally dated from 1506 to 1493 BC.
- Thutmose II (Thutmosis, or Tuthmosis II) Initiated at least two minor campaigns but did little else during his rule. His reign is generally dated from 1493 to 1479 BC.
- Hatshepsut (Hatchepsut) Established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation. She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt. She reigned from 1479 to 1458 BC.
- Thutmose III (Thutmosis, or Tuthmosis III, 1479-1425 BC) He created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in North Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in Nubia. He reigned for almost fifty four years.
- Amenhotep II (Amenophis II) He held the Kingdom by means of a few military campaigns in Syria. His reign is usually dated from 1427 to 1401 BC.
- Thutmose IV (Menkheperure, Thutmosis, or Tuthmosis IV) Thutmose's most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of the Sphinx at Giza and subsequent commission of the Dream Stele. He reigned for a brief ten-years.
- Amenhotep III (Amenophis III, or Amana-Hatpa) Unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour. Recorded the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye. He ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC
- Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV, Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, or Khuenaten) He tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. Ruled for 17 years.
- Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeser Kheperu, 1353–1336 BC) The Egyptian pantheon of the equality of all gods and goddesses was restored under Akhenaten's successor.
- Neferneferuaten (Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure, -mery-Waenre, -mery-Aten Neferneferuaten) Her reign was very brief. With the evidence so murky and equivocal, at one time or another, the name, gender, identity and even the existence of Neferneferuaten has been a matter of debate.
- Tutankhamun (King Tut, Tutenkh-, -amen, or -amon, 1332-1323 BC) He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The capital was moved back to Thebes.
- Ay (Kheperkheperure, 1323–1319 BC or 1327–1323 BC) He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period. Overseer of All the Horses of His Majesty.
- Horemheb (Horemhab, or Haremhab, 1319-1292 BC or 1306-1292 BC) Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay.
Nineteenth Dynasty (Dynasty XIX) 1292 to 1187 BC (New Kingdom)
- Ramesses I (Ramesses or Ramses, 1292-1290 BC as well as 1295-1294 BC) Ramesses I was of non-royal birth, being born into a noble military family from the Nile delta region.
- Seti I (Sethos I, 1294-1279 BC and 1290-1279 BC) Ramesses I and Seti I main priority was to re-establish order in the kingdom and to reaffirm Egypt's sovereignty over Canaan and Syria. His capital was at Memphis.
- Ramesses II (Ramesses or Ramses, 1303 - 1213 BC) He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein.
- Merneptah (Merenptah, August 1213 to May 2, 1203 BC) He fought against the Libyans, who—with the assistance of the Sea Peoples—were threatening Egypt from the West.
- Seti II (Sethos II, 1200-1194 BC) Amenmesse and Seti II must have partly overlapped with one another and suggests that both rulers were rivals who were fighting each another for the throne of Egypt.
- Amenmesse (Amenmesses, or Amenmose, 1202–1199 BC or 1203-1200 BC) Very little is known about this king, who ruled Egypt for only three to four years. Amenmesse did not succeed Merneptah on the throne of Egypt and was rather a rival king who usurped power sometime during Years 2 to 4 of Seti II's reign.
- Siptah (Akhenre Setepenre Siptah, or Merenptah Siptah) He was not the crown prince, but succeeded to the throne as a child after the death of Seti II.
- Twosret (Queen Twosret, Tawosret, or Tausret, 1191-1189 BC) When Siptah died, Twosret officially assumed the throne for herself, as the "Daughter of Re, Lady of Ta-merit, Twosret of Mut".
Twentieth Dynasty (Dynasty XX) 1187 to 1064 BC (New Kingdom)
- Setnakhte (Userkhaure-setepenre, Setnakhte, or Setnakht, 1189-1186 BC) As Setnakhte's reign was short, he may have come to the throne fairly late in life.
- Ramesses III (Usimare Ramesses III, 1186-1155 BC) the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles.
- Ramesses IV (Heqamaatre Ramesses IV, 1151-1145 BC or 1155-1149 BC) Hr doubled the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai.
- Ramesses V (Usermare Sekhepenre Ramesses V, 1145-1137 BC) He was characterized by the continued growth of the power of the priesthood of Amun. He reigned for four of his reign.
- Ramesses VI (Ramesses VI Nebmaatre-Meryamun, 1145-1137 BC) He is the last king of Egypt's New Kingdom whose name is attested in the Sinai.
- Ramesses VII (Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun Ramesses VII, 1136-1129 BC) Very little is known about his reign, though it was evidently a period of some turmoil as grain prices soared to the highest level.
- Ramesses VIII (Usermare Akhenamun Ramesses VIII, 1130-1129 BC) He lasted on the throne for one year at the most.
- Ramesses IX (Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset, 1129-1111 BC) Several royal and noble tombs in the Western Theban necropolis were found to have been robbed. The majority of the Empire's possessions in Canaan and Syria had long been lost to the Sea Peoples by his reign.
- Ramesses X (Khepermaatre Ramesses X, 1111-1107 BC) He is a poorly documented king.
- Ramesses XI (1107-1078 or 1077 BC) He ruled Egypt for at least 29 years. Civil conflict was already evident around the beginning of his reign when High Priest of Amon, Amenhotep, was ousted from office by the king with the aid of Nubian soldiers under command of Pinehesy, Viceroy of Nubia, for overstepping his authority with Ramesses XI. Tomb robbing was prevalent all over Thebes as Egypt's fortunes declined and her Asiatic empire was lost.
Twenty-First Dynasty (Dynasty XXI) 1077 to 943 BC (3rd Intermediate Period)
- Smendes (Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes) Had repairs done to the temple of Luxor to prevent flooding. He ruled over a divided Egypt and only effectively controlled Lower Egypt while Middle and Upper Egypt was effectively under the suzerainty of the High Priests of Amun such as Pinedjem I, Masaharta, and Menkheperre.
- Amenemnisu (Neferkare Amenemnisu) Short reign of 4 years. The then High Priest of Amun at Thebes, is known to have pardoned several leaders of a rebellion. These rebels had previously been exiled to the Western Oasis of Egypt.
- Pinedjem I (1070-1032 BC) He inherited a political and religious base of power at Thebes. He strengthened his control over both Middle and Upper Egypt and asserted his kingdom's virtual independence from the base at Tanis.
- Psusennes I (Pasibkhanu or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I, 1047-1001 BC) His reign length is unknown.
- Amenemope (Usermaatre) He reigned of 9 years. He served as a junior co-regent at the end of his father's final years according to the evidence from a mummy bandage fragment.
- Osorkon the Elder (Akheperre Setepenre) Osorkon the Elder's reign is significant because it foreshadows the coming the Libyan Twenty-second dynasty.
- Siamun (Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun) He reigned for 19 Years. Siamun doubled the size of the Temple of Amun at Tanis and initiated various works at the Temple of Horus at Mesen.
- Psusennes II (Titkheperure, or Tyetkheperre Psusennes II, 967-943 BC) He is credited with either a 14 or a 35 year reign.
Twenty-Second Dynasty (Dynasty XXII) 943 to 720 BC (3rd Intermediate Period)
- Sheshonk I (Sheshonk, or Sheshonq I, Shishaq, 943–922 BC) Referred to in the Old Testament at 1st Kings 11:40, 14:25, and 2 Chronicles 12:2-9. According to the Bible, Shishaq invaded Judah, mostly the area of Benjamin, during the fifth year of the reign of king Rehoboam, taking with him most of the treasures of the temple created by Solomon.
- Osorkon I (922-887 BC) He succeeded his father Shoshenq I who probably died within a year of his successful 923 BC campaign against the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Osorkon I's reign in Egypt was peaceful and uneventful. Osorkon I's tomb has never been found.
- Sheshonk II (Heqakheperre Shoshenq II) He was the only ruler of this Dynasty whose tomb was not plundered by tomb robbers. An independent reign of 2 years at Tanis.
- Takelot I (Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot I) He ruled Egypt for 13 Years. Takelot I's authority was not fully recognised in Upper Egypt, and Harsiese A, or another local Theban king, challenged his power there.
- Osorkon II (Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon II, 872-837 BC) Ruled from Tanis. He was faced with the competing rule of his cousin, king Harsiese A, who controlled both Thebes and the Western Oasis of Egypt. When Harsiese conveniently died in 860 BC, Osorkon II ensured that this problem would not recur by appointing his own son Nimlot C as the next High Priest of Amun at Thebes. He then ruled over a united Egypt.
- Sheshonk III (Usermaatre Setepenre, or Usimare Setepenamun Shoshenq III, 837–798 BC) He ruled for 39 years.
- Sheshonk IV (Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq IV) He is distinguished from Shoshenq I by his use of an especially long nomen – Shoshenq-meryamun-sibast-netjerheqaon which featured both the sibast ('son of Bast') and netjerheqaon ('god-ruler of Heliopolis') epithets.
- Pami (Usermaatre Setepenre Pami) He ruled for 7 years. He was a member of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt of Meshwesh Libyans who had been living in the country since the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt when their ancestors infiltrated into the Egyptian Delta from Libya.
- Shoshenq V (Akheperre) He was the final king of Meshwesh Libyans which controlled Lower Egypt. His reign lasted 38 years.
- Pedubast II (Sehetepibenre, 743-733 BC) He is attested as a king at Tanis.
- Osorkon IV () Osorkon's reign was never recognised at Memphis. Upper Egypt was conquered by the Kushite king, Piankhi, and Osorkon IV ended ruling only the East Nile Delta region.
Twenty-Third Dynasty (Dynasty XXIII) 880 to 740 BC (3rd Intermediate Period)
- Harsiese A (Hedjkheperre Setepenamun Harsiese, 880-860 BC) He may have become king at Thebes prior to Year 4 of Osorkon II, he certainly ruled Thebes during the first decade of Osorkon II's reign.
- Takelot II (Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese) High Priest of Amun at Thebes. He is believed to have ascended to the throne of a divided Egypt in either 845 BC or 834 BC.
- Pedubast I (Pedubastis I, or Pedubast I, 835-824 BC) He was the main opponent to Takelot II and later, Osorkon B, of the 23rd Dynasty of Libyan kings of Upper Egypt at Thebes. His accession to power plunged Thebes into a protracted civil war which lasted for nearly three decades between these two competing factions. His accession to power plunged Thebes into a protracted civil war which lasted for nearly three decades between these two competing factions. Each faction had a rival line of High Priests of Amun with Pedubast's being Harsiese B who is attested in office as early as Year 6 of Shoshenq III and then Takelot E who appears in office from Year 23 of Pedubast I.
- Iuput I (816-800 BC) The exact dates of his reign are unknown.
- Shoshenq VI (Usermaatre Meryamun Shoshenq) Shoshenq VI was presumably Crown Prince Osorkon B's chief rival at Thebes after the death of Pedubast I.
- Osorkon III (Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon III) He is generally thought to have been a contemporary of the Lower Egyptian 22nd Dynasty kings, Shoshenq IV, Pami, and the first decade of Shoshenq V's reign. He was once a High Priest of Amun in his own right.
- Takelot III (Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese) Ruled the first five years of his reign in a coregency with his father and served previously as the High Priest of Amun at Thebes.
- Rudamun (Usermaatre Setepenamun, or Rudamun Meryamun) He is a poorly attested pharaoh. Graffito to the 25th dynastic Nubian period entirely. (rather than to the Libyan era) and demonstrates that they pertain to Amenirdis I and Shepenupet II based on paleographic and other evidence at Karnak rather than the Libyan Shepenupet I and the Nubian Amenirdis I.
- Ini (Iny Si-Ese Meryamun, 780-770 or 753-743 BC) He was a local king who ruled only at Thebes for at least 4–5 years after the death of Rudamun.
- Peftjauwybast (Irbastwedjanefu Tashereniset I, 750-740 BC)
Twenty-Fourth Dynasty (Dynasty XXIX) 732 to 720 BC (3rd Intermediate Period)
- Tefnakht (Shepsesre Tefnakht, 732-725 BC) Was a prince of Saïs and founder of the relatively short Twenty-fourth dynasty. He was able to capture and unify many of the cities of the Delta region, thus making Tefnakht considerably more powerful than any of his predecessors in either the 22nd or 23rd dynasties.
- Bakenranef (Bocchoris) Based at Sais in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. The Egyptians attributed to him a law concerning contracts, which provided for a way to discharge debts where no bond was signed.
Twenty-Five Dynasty (Dynasty XXV) 760 to 656 BC (3rd Intermediate Period)
- Kashta (760-752 BC) While Kashta ruled Nubia from Napata, which is 400 km north of Khartoum, the modern capital of Sudan, he also exercised a strong degree of control over Upper Egypt by managing to install his daughter, Amenirdis I, as the presumptive God's Wife of Amun in Thebes in line to succeed the serving Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Shepenupet I, Osorkon III's daughter.
- Piye (753-752 to 722 BC) He ruled from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, modern day Sudan.
- Shabaka (721 to 707-706 BC) Shabaka's reign is significant because he consolidated the Nubian Kingdom's control over all of Egypt from Nubia down to the Delta region.
- Shebitku (Shabatka, 707-706 to 690 BC) This Nile text records Shebitku mentioning his appearing (xai) in Thebes as king in the temple of Amun at Karnak where "Amun gave him the crown with two uraei like Horus on the throne of Re" thereby legitimising his kingship.
- Taharqa (690-664 BC) King of the Kingdom of Kush, which was located in Northern Sudan. His reign was filled with conflict with the Assyrians, it was also a prosperous renaissance period in Egypt and Kush. When Taharqa was about 20 years old, he participated in a historic battle with the Assyrian emperor Sennacherib at Eltekeh.
- Tantamani (Assyrian pronunciation, identical to Tandaname, or Tanwetamani) He ruled only Nubia (Kush). Hei marched down the Nile from Nubia and reoccupied all of Egypt including Memphis.
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty (Dynasty XXVI) 760 to 656 BC (3rd Intermediate Period)
- Psamtik I (Psammeticus, or Psammetichus) After his father's death, Psamtik managed to both unite all of Egypt and free her from Assyrian control within the first ten years of his reign. He dispatched a powerful naval fleet in March 656 BC to Thebes and compelled the existing God's Wife of Amun at Thebes, Shepenupet II, to adopt his daughter Nitocris I as her heiress in the so-called Adoption Stela.
- Necho II (Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu) Captured Kadesh on the Orontes and moved forward, joining forces with Ashur-uballit and together they crossed the Euphrates and laid siege to Harran. Although Necho became the first pharaoh to cross the Euphrates since Thutmose III, he failed to capture Harran, and retreated back to northern Syria. At this point, Ashur-uballit vanished from history, and the Assyrian Empire was conquered by the Babylonians. The Book of Kings states that Necho met King Josiah of the Kingdom of Judah at Megiddo and killed him.
- Psamtik II (Psammetichus, or Psammeticus, 595-589 BC) First confrontation between Egypt and Nubia since the reign of Tantamani. The Egyptian army advanced to Pnubs (Kerma) and the capital city of Napata in a series of fierce battles, where they looted its temples and destroyed the royal Kushite statues.
- Apries (Wahibre Haaibre, 589-570 BC) He dispatched a force to Jerusalem to protect it from Babylonian forces sent by Nebuchadrezzar II. His forces were quickly crushed and Jerusalem, following an 18-month long siege, was destroyed by the Babylonians in either 587 BC or 586 BC. Apries later attempted to protect Libya from incursions by Dorian Greek invaders but his efforts here backfired spectacularly as his forces were mauled by the Greek invaders. While the mutiny was contained, Apries later attempted to protect Libya from incursions by Dorian Greek invaders but his efforts here backfired spectacularly as his forces were mauled by the Greek invaders. When the defeated army returned home, a civil war broke out between the indigenous Egyptian army troops and foreign mercenaries in the Egyptian army. At this time of crisis, the Egyptians turned in support towards a victorious general, Amasis II who had led Egyptian forces in a highly successful invasion of Nubia in 592 BC under pharaoh Psamtik II, Apries' father. Amasis quickly declared himself pharaoh in 570 BC and Apries fled Egypt and sought refuge in another foreign country. When Apries marched back to Egypt in 567 BC with the aid of a Babylonian army to reclaim the throne of Egypt, he was likely killed in battle with Amasis' forces. Amasis thus secured his kingship over Egypt and was now the unchallenged ruler of Egypt. Apries is also called Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30.
- Amasis II (Ahmose II, 570-526 BC) Amasis, was asked by Cambyses II or Cyrus the Great for an Egyptian ophthalmologist on good terms. Amasis seems to have complied by forcing an Egyptian physician into mandatory labor causing him to leave his family behind in Egypt and move to Persia in forced exile. In an attempt to exact revenge for his forced exile, the physician would grow very close with Cambyses and would suggest that Cambyses should ask Amasis for a daughter in marriage in order to solidify his bonds with the Egyptians. Cambyses complied and requested a daughter of Amasis for marriage. Amasis, worrying that his daughter would be a concubine to the Persian king, refused to give up his offspring; Amasis also was not willing to take on the Persian empire so he concocted a trickery in which he forced the daughter of the ex-pharaoh Apries, whom Herodotus explicitly confirms to have been killed by Amasis, to go to Persia instead of his own offspring. This daughter of Apries was none other than Nitetis, who was as per Herodotus's account, "tall and beautiful." Nitetis naturally betrayed Amasis and upon being greeted by the Persian king explained Amasis's trickery and her true origins. This infuriated Cambyses and he vowed to take revenge for it. Amasis would die before Cambyses reached him, but his heir and son Psamtik III would be defeated by the Persians.
- Psamtik III (Psammetichus, or Psammeticus, 526-525 BC) After the Persians under Cambyses had crossed the Sinai desert with the aid of the Arabs, a bitter battle was fought near Pelusium, a city on Egypt's eastern frontier, in the spring of 525 BC. The Egyptians were defeated at Pelusium and Psamtik was betrayed by one of his allies, Phanes of Halicarnas. Consequently, Psamtik and his army were compelled to withdraw to Memphis. The Persians captured the city after a long siege, and captured Psamtik after its fall. Shortly thereafter, Cambyses ordered the public execution of two thousand of the principal citizens, including (it is said) a son of the fallen king.
Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (Dynasty XXVII) 525 to 402 BC (Late Period)
- The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BCE to 402 BCE. The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II of Persia in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 BC. Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. Thus began the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (also known as the 27th Dynasty), which ended around 402 BC.
Twenty-Eighth Dynasty (Dynasty XXVIII) 404 - 398 BC (Late Period)
- Amyrtaeus (Amenirdisu, 404-399 BC) He led a successful revolt against the Persians on the death of Darius II. Isocrates, Artaxerxes II assembled an army in Phoenicia under the command of Abrocomas to retake Egypt shortly after coming to the Persian throne, but political problems with his brother Cyrus the Younger prevented this from taking place, allowing the Egyptians sufficient time to throw off Achaemenid rule. While the rule of Amyrtaeus in the western Delta was established by 404 BC, Artaxerxes II continued to be recognized as king at Elephantine as late as 401 BC, but Aramaic papyri from the site refer to Regnal Year 5 of Amyrtaeus in September 400 BC. The Elephantine papyri also demonstrate that between 404 and 400 BC (or even 398) Upper Egypt remained under Persian control, while the forces of Amyrtaeus dominated the Delta.
Twenty-Ninth Dynasty (Dynasty XXIX) 398 - 380 BC (Late Period)
- Nepherites I (Nefaarud I, 398-393 BC) Nefaarud I, founded the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and then executing him at Memphis in the autumn of 399 BC. He supported Sparta in its war against the Persians by supplying it with grain and material for 100 triremes "ancient sea vessel".
- Psammuthes (393 BC) Psammuthes was an Egyptian Pharaoh of the Twenty-ninth dynasty during 393 BC. Upon the death of Nepherites I, two rival factions fought for the throne: one supported Muthis son of Nefaarud, and the other supported an usurper named Psammuthes. Both men were, however, overcome by an unrelated man named Hakor.
- Hakor (Akoris, 393-380 BC) Hakor overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes and falsely proclaimed himself to be the grandson of Nepherites I, founder of the 29th Dynasty, on his monuments in order to legitimise his kingship. Hakor revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 BC, he concluded a tripartite alliance with Evagoras, king of Cyprus, and Athens. This alliance led Persia to begin supporting Sparta in the Corinthian War, which eventually led to the ending of that war by the Peace of Antalcidas in 387-6 BC. In it, Artaxerxes II proclaimed his authority over the cities of Asia Minor and Cyprus gave full autonomy to the Greek city states of mainland Greece as long as they did not make war on him. After the end of that war, Persia turned its attention to Egypt, but Hakor, supported by the Athenian general Chabrias, held them off in a three year war between 385 and 383 BC.
- Nepherites II (Nefaarud II) He became Pharaoh of Egypt in 380 BC after the death of his father Hakor. He was the last pharaoh of the twenty-ninth dynasty and the son of Hakor. He was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling Egypt for only 4 months.
Thirtieth Dynasty (Dynasty XXX) 380 - 343 BC (Late Period)
- Nectanebo I (Kheperkare, 18-year Reign) Nectanebo deposed and killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of Egyptian kings. He seems to have spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of troops from Athens or Sparta. He also built the first pylon in the temple of Karnak.
- Teos of Egypt (Irmaatenre, Tachos, or Djedhor, 362-360 BC) He had been co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365. He was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta and was forced to flee to Persia by way of Arabia. The Persian king Artaxerxes II gave him refuge, and Teos lived in Persian exile until his death.
- Nectanebo II (Nakhthorheb) He was the last native ruler of Ancient Egypt. Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists delivered a specific style that left a distinctive mark on the relief sculpture of the Ptolemaic era. Like his indirect predecessor Nectanebo I, Nectanebo II showed enthusiasm for nearly every Egyptian cult and more than a hundred Egyptian sites bear evidence of his attentions. Nectanebo II, however, undertook more constructions and restorations than Nectanebo I, commencing in particular the enormous temple of Isis (Iseum). For several years, Nectanebo II was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire. Betrayed by his former servant Mentor of Rhodes, however, Nectanebo II was ultimately defeated by the combined Persian-Greek forces in the 343 BC Battle of Pelusium. In 342 BC, the Persians occupied Memphis and the rest of Egypt, incorporating the country back into the Achaemenid Empire. Nectanebo fled south and preserved his power for some time.
Thirty First Dynasty (Dynasty XXXI) 343 - 332 BC (Late Period)
It is not known who served as satrap after Artaxerxes III, but under Darius III (336–330 BC) there was Sabaces, who fought and died at Issus and was succeeded by Mazaces. Egyptians also fought at Issus, for example, the nobleman Somtutefnekhet of Heracleopolis, who described on the "Naples stele" how he escaped during the battle against the Greeks and how Arsaphes, the god of his city, protected him and allowed him to return home. In 332 BC Mazaces handed over the country to Alexander the Great without a fight. The Achaemenid empire had ended, and for a while Egypt was a satrapy in Alexander's empire.